Clean ceilings and walls make your house look pristine, even when the interior is a bit dated. Dark spots and stains, however, can make you feel uneasy in your own home regardless of how new or trendy your furnishings are. Of all, the most frustrating are those pesky brown spots that stain your ceiling. Generally, they result from leaks. But where do they come from if nothing’s leaking?
There are three main reasons why your ceiling has brown spots but no leak. They could be water stains produced by condensation. Mold growing in your ceiling is another culprit. Or, if you’re a smoker, they could be smoke stains.
Brown Spots on Bathroom Ceiling: Where Do They Come From?
There are exactly three causes – and they each have their own remedies – for brown ceiling stains: water damage, mold damage, and smoke damage.
Most homeowners believe water damage can’t happen without a leak; however, leaking pipes or a damaged roof aren’t the only causes of water damage in your bathroom ceiling. In fact, the water could come from your bathroom vent.
If the vent isn’t insulated properly, the water vapors absorbed will turn into their liquid form as soon as they hit the cold duct. Condensation generally builds up inside the duct, but the hot air can also warm up the pipe.
On colder days, when the air in your attic is frigid, the warmer air around the duct mixes with the cold air inside the attic, condensing on the duct’s exterior. This condensation will eventually start dripping and soak into your ceiling, becoming visible as brown spots on your white ceiling.
Likewise, the water dripping out from the bathroom fan can soak into the ceiling and cause brown spots around the vent fan.
Mold and moisture go hand in hand, but the truth is that mold stains have nothing to do with water (mold growth has, on the other hand).
Bathrooms are naturally wet environments that need proper ventilation. However, not all bathrooms have a window, and not all windowless bathrooms have an appropriate vent installed. When you shower or take a bath, all that moisture ends up on your ceiling and walls.
The warm, moist air on the walls and ceiling provide a proper environment for mold and bacteria to thrive. That said, bacteria often prefer more humid places, such as a toilet bowl or the space between a shower pan and the shower door seal. Mold needs much more air; thus, it likes to grow on walls and ceilings.
Telling a mold stain from a water stain is challenging. Both stain types look similar and have an almost identical color at first. However, mold stains tend to become darker in time, eventually turning to a dark brown or black.
Mold in your bathroom – and anywhere else inside your home – can pose serious health issues. The fungus can cause respiratory problems, especially in people suffering from asthma or allergies.
If you’re a smoker, the brown stains on your ceiling could be the result of your unhealthy habit. In fact, the cigarette smoke carries some ash alongside dust. Once it reaches the ceiling, the particles penetrate the paint pores and bind to it.
You won’t be able to see the effect right away, but an accumulation of smoke and dust will eventually turn your white ceiling a yellowish shade.
If you don’t clean your ceiling and walls regularly, the accumulation will become visible as brown spots. Smoke spots are easy to identify because they are different from water or mold damage. The main difference is the linear edge of the stain – whether it’s circular or any other shape, a smoke stain will often have sharp edges.
The main downside is that when smoke stains start to affect your ceiling, cleaning it won’t suffice. You’ll have to repaint.
How To Get Rid Of Brown Water Stains On Ceiling
The easiest way to get rid of brown water stains on the ceiling is by repainting it. If you don’t have paint and don’t feel like buying some, you could try removing it with bleach. However, the bleach method only works if you have white ceilings. Here’s what to do.
1. Gather the necessary supplies
Whether you want to repaint the ceiling or just clean it, you’ll still need bleach to wash off the stain. Before getting started, gather all the supplies below.
- Unscented, household bleach
- Spray bottle
- Brush or sponge
- Paper towel
- Drop cloth
- Safety mask
- Rubber gloves
- Painter’s tape (optional)
- Stain blocking primer (optional)
- Ceiling paint (optional)
- Paintbrush or paint roll (optional)
2. Repair the root cause
Water damage happens for a reason, and unless you fix the cause, you’ll have to deal with new stains in no time.
There are various potential reasons why your ceiling is stained, but the most common are:
- Improper ventilation: Install a larger bathroom vent if you already have one or a new vent if you don’t (even if your bathroom has a window). Check the ducts, too, and make sure they are properly insulated to avoid condensation. If your vent has the right size, check if it works correctly and replace it if needed.
- Compromised roof: Find and replace any broken shingles. Also, check the area around the roof vent and make sure that it is sealed. Otherwise, water could leak through it into your bathroom.
- Leaky radiator or plumbing: If the stained ceiling is on the ground floor, the water could come from a leaky radiator located above the bathroom. Check the room right above the bathroom and make sure nothing’s leaking. You should also call in a plumber to inspect the pipes running through the upper floors if any.
3. Clean the stain with bleach
Clear the area under the stain and place a drop cloth on the floor. If you want to repaint the ceiling, move away all the smaller objects and cover everything else with drop cloths.
Mix one-part general use bleach with two parts water and pour the mixture into a spray bottle. Put on the protective equipment and climb on a ladder.
Cover the stain with a light mist of bleach solution and let it soak for about 30 seconds, then spray a light mist again. This procedure is important because you don’t want bleach solution to drip all over you and on the floor. Dab any large drops with a paper towel.
If your ceiling paint is washable, gently scrub the stain with a very soft brush or sponge. The motion should be more of a light wipe than a real scrub.
Let the bleach dry and inspect the ceiling. If the stain was new, the bleach solution might be enough to get rid of it. An older stain might require two or more bleach applications. If you can’t remove the stain with bleach, repaint the ceiling.
4. Prime the surface
If the ceiling surface is smooth and in good condition, except for the stain, you don’t have to remove the old coat of paint and don’t need to sand the surface either. Simply apply a coat of primer with a paintbrush or roller and wait for it to dry as instructed on the tin.
5. Paint the ceiling
Stick a strip of painter’s tape on the walls’ edge right below the ceiling to protect them as you’re painting. Dilute the paint with water, if needed, or pour undiluted paint into a tray (whether or not the paint needs diluting depends on the product you use).
Start from a corner of the room and paint the surface. Apply a thin coat of product, paying attention to cover the entire surface, then move to a new section of the ceiling. Continue until you’ve covered the entire area.
Let the paint dry for about four hours (if it’s water-based) or six to eight hours (if it’s oil-based) and apply a second coat if needed. Let it dry and cure as instructed.
2 Best Ways To Cover Water Stains On Ceiling
Covering a water stain won’t treat the cause, but it can make your home look fresher until you find the culprit and fix it. Here are three quick ways to cover the stains on your ceiling.
Stain Blocking Primer
A stain-blocking primer is a paint product designed to go on your wall before the paint. However, if you have a white ceiling and don’t feel like repainting it just yet, you can cover the water stain by applying the primer alone. If you choose to do this, apply at least two coats of primer to cover the stains completely.
Another quick fix is painting your ceiling with oil-based paint. Due to its impermeable nature, this type of paint won’t let water get through it, so the stains will unlikely form again.
However, oil-based paint doesn’t let your ceiling breathe either. If the ventilation system in your bathroom doesn’t work properly, you’ll have a condensation problem, and mold may start to grow on your ceiling. Moreover, oil-based paint is generally available in eggshell, semi-gloss, and glossy finishes, so you won’t be able to choose a matte product should you want to.
2 Major Causes For Brown Mold on Ceiling
Brown mold is a type of fungus generally found outdoors. It particularly likes wood and prefers moist, dark spots to grow. Like all fungi, brown mold spreads through spores that can find their way into our homes. Because they like moisture, brown mold often grows in bathrooms, attics, basements, and other rooms that could be moist and dark – and there are two major causes for it:
Leak or Water Damage
We mentioned that brown mold likes humid places, so water soaking into your walls or ceiling provides the perfect environment for the mold to grow. This type of mold will initially look like discoloration on your ceiling. As it grows, the color will change to yellow, brown, and eventually a dark brown.
Water damage and leaks aside, a lack of ventilation can also cause mold to grow. In this case, the moisture remains trapped inside your home, sticking to your walls, ceilings, and other surfaces. If you have a ventilation problem, brown mold could start growing on your ceiling but also on walls, especially behind the vanity. Moreover, it could also affect your furniture, especially if it’s made of wood or wood products.
Brown spots on ceilings can cut off your house’s curb appeal, but you can get rid of them. Here are the answers to a few more questions you might have.
How long does it take for a water stain to appear?
It depends on how severe the leak is. A severe leak can show through in hours, while water stains caused by condensation could take a few days to show.
Who to call for a water stain on the ceiling?
The first professional to call for water damage stains is a plumber. A licensed plumber can check your plumbing system and identify any leaks. Moreover, a plumber can also figure out if you have a ventilation problem. If the stain isn’t caused by water, they can tell you who to call next.
Can you paint over water-stained drywall?
Yes, you can paint over water-stained drywall. However, you should fix the cause first and make sure the drywall is dry before painting it. Use a stain-blocking primer to prevent any trapped moisture from bleeding through your new paint, then apply the ceiling paint of your choice.
What to do with the ceiling after removing skylights?
The easiest way to deal with a ceiling after removing skylights is by filling the gap with drywall, covering it with a grill of some kind, and painting it in your desired color. You could also create a focal feature, such as installing iron pipe or wrought iron and hanging a few flower pots from the ceiling.
Getting rid of the brown spots on your ceiling requires a bit of work, but you could cover them temporarily until you fix the cause. Hopefully, this guide can help you identify the stains (water, mold, or smoke) and find the right way to remove them once and for all.